Wind Power

Wind Energy in Kenya

  • Kenya is fast making progress in the utilizing the wind potential which is estimated at over 3000MW. With increasing demand for renewable energy and also contribute to the climate goals.
  • Current investment include 25.5 MW in Ngong Hills operated by KenGen. Upcoming 310MW in Marsabit County by Lake Turkana Wind Power is expect late 2017 upon completion of transmission line. Kajiado County estimated at 100MW and Windlab are conducting feasibility study in Meru County.
  • The Lake Turkana Wind Power Project (LTWP) wind farm covers 40,000 acres (162 km²) in Marsabit County. The farm aims to provide 310MW of reliable, low cost wind power to Kenya’s national grid, equivalent to approximately 18 % of the country’s current installed electricity generating capacity.
  • On completion, the project will comprise 365 wind turbines, each with a capacity of 850 kW, the associated overhead electric grid collection system and a high voltage substation that will be connected to the national grid. The power produced will be bought at a fixed price by Kenya Power (KPLC) over a 20-year period in accordance with the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with the latter.
  • Kipeto Wind Power Project. With a generation capacity of 100MW of clean, renewable electrical energy, the project is the second largest wind power project in Kenya. It is situated in Kiserian Division, Kajiado County.

Growth

  • To meet increasing demand, the Government estimates that 2 GW of wind power need to be installed by 2030. To encourage investment in large-scale wind power, the government has put in place a feed-in tariff (FiT) policy.
  • For generation between 0.5- 10 MW, a standard tariff of 0.11 USD cents per kWh and the same for larger projects up to cumulative of 500MW.

Small Wind Energy

  • There is notable use of small wind turbines systems for domestic and institutional use either as standalone, back up or hybrid systems. It is estimated that about ‘80-100 small wind turbines (400 W) have been installed to date. However, the market penetration of small wind turbines is limited.
  • Some of the small wind manufacturers/dealers include RIWIK (a Dutch Company), WindGenEA; CraftskillsEA, Kenital solar, Davis & Shirtliff, Chloride Exide and Power Point Systems EA.

Wind Resources

  • There are high wind speeds in various parts of northern Kenya and other arid lands. Preliminary wind resource assessments show that wind regimes in certain parts of Kenya (such as Marsabit, Ngong and the Coastal region) can support commercial electricity generation as they enjoy wind speeds ranging from 8 to 14 metres per second (m/s). Specific areas that have been identified for wind power generation are Marsabit, Laisamis, Turkana and Samburu.
  • Geographically, in Central provinces, counties such as Nyeri experience fairly good wind speeds with maximum value of mean annual wind speed of 7.44 m/s covering a potential area of 3359 sq km followed by Kirinyaga with 7.41 m/s and 1481 sq km.
  • In the coastal division, counties such as Tana River, Lamu and Kilifi also possess good wind speed with maximum value of mean annual wind speed of 8.32, 8.26 and 8.26 m/s and potential area of 38610 sq km, 6878 sq km, and 12310 sq km respectively.
  • In the eastern division, Marsabit County has maximum of mean annual wind speed of 9.27 m/s with potential area of 75596 sq km followed by Meru, Embu and Isolo with 7.61, 7.5 and 7.83 m/s and potential area of 7172 sq km, 2760 sq km and 24881 sq km respectively.
  • In the north-eastern provinces, counties such as Garissa, Mandera and Wajir have potential area of 44459 sq km, 28302, sq km and 53413 sq km with maximum of annual mean wind speed of 7.73, 7.73 and 7.75 m/s respectively.
  • In the Rift Valley province, counties such as Turkana has maximum potential area of 61353 sq km with maximum of annual mean wind speed of 7.11 m/s followed by Nakuru with 29286 sq km and 6.52 m/s. Baringo also possess fairly good potential area with 10942 sq km and wind speed of 6.79 m/s.
Wind Speed Interval Potential Area Wind Speed
2-2.5 7 Not suitable
2.5-3 435
3-3.5 1007
3.5-4 1643
4-4.5 6932
4.5-5 20794
5.-5.5 56435
5.5-6 78782
6-6.5 107410 Class IV
6.5-7 142352 Class III
7-7.5 146363
7.5-8 21318 Class II
8-8.5 6910
8.5-9 2586 Class I
9-9.5 239

Area under different wind speed classes at 100 m.a.g.l. [Source: 2013; Wind Sector Prospectus Kenya]

Wind Speed Map of Kenya at 100m height

Some projects

JICA funded project (2013 – 2017)
  • BRIGHT Project in collaboration with JKUAT, have made efforts to build the capacity of renewable energy actors and have developed a prototype of locally made wind turbine. The project also supported on-site measurement of wind speeds in Naivasha. A training needs assessment revealed that many technical training institutions intended to have wind energy training course as well as solar photovoltaic training course. The development of a wind energy training course was therefore considered a priority.
  • However, there was inadequate information about the small wind energy industry, wind energy technologies for rural energy supply, operation and maintenance of wind energy systems, quantity and quality of wind energy engineers and technicians and current wind energy training courses, if any, in universities, technical training institutions and other relevant institutions.
  • A survey to establish the market status and identify the real training needs on small wind energy systems in Kenya was therefore found necessary to ensure that appropriate curriculum that addresses the local needs is developed.  The project trained 25 participants from private sector and technical institutions.
Supporting sustainable mini-grid development and production of wind turbines in Kenya.
  • Sustainable Energy in collaboration with the Danish wind turbine manufacturer VESTAS, Technical University of Denmark and Kenya Climate Innovation Centre is implementing 5 years’ mini-grid development project in rural Kenya.
  • The project will demonstrate how a mini-grid system based on energy from wind turbines and solar panels can simultaneously reduce the cost of dependable electricity and create local employment while favouring disadvantaged communities in rural areas of Kenya.
  • A key output of the project will be the development of a new type of wind turbine that in size and function fits in with current mini-grid systems.

Capacity Building

  • Wind energy training courses are offered by universities as part of their engineering degree programmes at either undergraduate or postgraduate level. Some universities who offer the courses include:

1. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and technology,
2. Kenyatta University, Technical University of Mombasa,
3. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology,
4. Moi University and Egerton University.

  • The wind training provided by the universities is a course unit or module in the engineering degrees (mostly mechanical and energy engineering) courses. Only JKUAT offers an external short course on wind energy but only on request.

Regulatory Framework

  • In sessional paper No. 4 of 2004, in as far as renewable energy is concerned; the policy commits the Government to promote the development and widespread utilization of renewable energy technologies including wind among others.
  • The energy Act No. 12 of 2006 compels the Minister responsible for energy to promote the development and use of renewable energy technologies, including but not limited to biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol charcoal, fuel wood, solar, wind, tidal waves, hydropower, biogas and municipal waste. The Planning and Building Regulations, 2009 recommend that all new developments should consider generating electricity from stand-alone wind power systems at suitable locations.

Standards

Kenya has also adopted the IEC standard for small wind turbines KS: IEC 61400-2. Kenya has also adopted all the other parts of IEC 61400 that apply to all types and capacities of wind turbines. In addition to adopting IEC 64100, Kenya has its own standard KS: 1854 which is titled ‘wind turbines – protective measures – requirements for design, operation and maintenance measures.

  • KS ISO 17713-1:2007: Meteorology – Wind measurements – Part 1: Wind tunnel test methods for rotating anemometer performance.
  • KS IEC 61400-21:2008: Wind turbine – Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines.
  • KS IEC 61400-11:2006: Wind turbine generator systems – Part 11: Acoustic noise measurement techniques.
  • KS IEC TS 61400-13:2001: Wind turbine generator systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads.
  • KS IEC T 61400-23:2001: Wind turbine generator systems – Part 23: Full-scale structural testing of rotor blades.
  • KS IEC 60050-415:1999: Wind turbine generator systems – Section 415-01: Wind turbines and wind turbine generator systems.

Clearances / Requirements

On-grid (>0.5 – 50 MW)
1. Approval for Expression of Interest and Detailed Feasibility Study
2. Environment Impact Assessment
3. Kenya Civil Aviation Clearance: (Wind power projects only)
4. Approval for Change of User
5. Development Permit
6. Way Leave Authorization: (Applies to transmission and distribution lines passing through KFS land)
7. Special Use License: (Applies to power plants and sub stations situated inside KFS land)
8. Approval of Power Purchasing Agreement: (Wind Energy – Non FiT Based)
9. Electricity Generation License (Wind – Non FiT Based)

Off-grid (>0.5 – 50 MW)

1. Approval for Expression of Interest and Detailed Feasibility Study
2. Environment Impact Assessment
3. Kenya Civil Aviation Clearance: (Wind power projects only)
4. Approval for Change of User
5. Development Permit
6. Way Leave Authorization: (Applies to transmission and distribution lines passing through KFS land)
7. Special Use License: (Applies to power plants and sub stations situated inside KFS land)
8. Approval of Power Purchasing Agreement: (Wind Energy – Non FiT Based)
9. Electricity Generation License (Wind – Non FiT Based)

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