Overview of Energy in Kenya
In Kenya primary energy sources consist of fossil fuels (mainly petroleum, natural gas and coal) and renewable energy sources, which include biomass, wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal. As of June, 2011 petroleum accounted for 22% of the total primary energy consumed in the country, used mainly in the transport, commercial and industrial sectors. Electricity accounts for 9% while biomass accounts for 68%. Coal provides about 1% of the primary energy consumed in the country mainly for cement manufacturing ().
Kenya is endowed with vast renewable energy resources. The potential of these resources includes:
- geothermal (7,000-10,000 MW),
- solar (4-6kWh/m2),
- wind (346W/m2), and
- hydro-power (6,000MW).
Biomass fuels, mainly in traditional forms, are by far the largest source of primary energy in Kenya. In addition there have been recent discoveries of commercially viable deposits of fossil fuels. GOK, Stock taking and Gap Analysis , 2013.
As of April 2017, the total installed generation capacity is approximately 2325 MW which includes:
- hydro-power (823MW),
- geothermal (652MW),
- biomass (28MW),
- wind (25.55MW),
- Solar (0.64MW),
- thermal power (796 MW).
According to the country’s Least Cost Power Development Plan, the projected power demand is 15,000MW by 2030. Hydro-power and geothermal contribute 35.4% and 28.6%, respectively while fossil thermal plants constitute 33.8% of the existing effective capacity. Access to electricity is currently about 30% of the population. The average growth in electricity consumption in the last 6 years is 5.4%.